E-ISSN 0976-2779 | ISSN 0975-8453
 

Review Article 


A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood.

Abstract
Background: Tranexamic acid is used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss. Moreover, tranexamic acid is reported to treat the UV light-induced hyperpigmentation. Several tranexamic acid esters were approved to have topical skincare, however, tranexamic acid ethyl ester was not. In this work, a vehicle-controlled, double-blinded, and randomized clinical study was conducted for both tranexamic acid and its synthesized ethyl ester.
Methods: a well-established protocol was adopted to synthesize ethyl-4-(Aminomethyl)Cyclohexanecarboxylate from tranexamic acid and ethanol. Three gel preparations were applied. These contained tranexamic acid, tranexamic acid ethyl ester, and vehicle (gel base). These three prepared gels were applied to thirty-six subjects of three equally-divided groups for thirty days’ period.
Results: The synthesis shows 90% yield with purity > 99.7%. While the clinical findings were significant for both tranexamic acid (P = .01) and tranexamic acid ethyl ester (P < .001) whereas it was insignificant for the gel vehicle (P = .176).
Conclusion: The authors concluded that both tranexamic acid and tranexamic acid ethyl ester topical gels are considered favourable choices to counteract facial hyperpigmentation.

Key words: Tranexamic acid gel, tranexamic acid ethyl ester gel, hyperpigmentation, skin whiteners.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Alaa A. Ali
Articles by Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi
Articles by Ayad M.R. Raauf
Articles by Hasanain Shakir Mahmood
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. SRP. 2020; 11(6): 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86


Web Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. http://www.sysrevpharm.org//?mno=117011 [Access: June 20, 2020]. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. SRP. 2020; 11(6): 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. SRP. (2020), [cited June 20, 2020]; 11(6): 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



Harvard Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood (2020) A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. SRP, 11 (6), 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



Turabian Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. 2020. A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11 (6), 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



Chicago Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. "A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 11 (2020), 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood. "A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 11.6 (2020), 563-567. Print. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alaa A. Ali, Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi, Ayad M.R. Raauf, Hasanain Shakir Mahmood (2020) A Comparative, Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Vehicle-Controlled Study for the Reduction in Facial Pigmentation after Treatment with both Tranexamic Acid and Tranexamic Acid Ethyl Ester. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11 (6), 563-567. doi:10.31838/srp.2020.6.86





Most Viewed Articles
  • Dental Development between Assisted Reproductive Therapy (Art) and Natural Conceived Children: A Comparative Pilot Study
    Norzaiti Mohd Kenali, Naimah Hasanah Mohd Fathil, Norbasyirah Bohari, Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Roszaman Ramli
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 01-06
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.01

  • Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of life instrument, short form: Validity in the Vietnamese healthcare context
    Trung Quang Vo*, Bao Tran Thuy Tran, Ngan Thuy Nguyen, Tram ThiHuyen Nguyen, Thuy Phan Chung Tran
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 14-22
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.03

  • A Prospective Review on Phyto-Pharmacological Aspects of Andrographis paniculata
    Govindraj Akilandeswari, Arumugam Vijaya Anand, Palanisamy Sampathkumar, Puthamohan Vinayaga Moorthi, Basavaraju Preethi
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 15-19
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.3

  • A Review of Pharmacoeconomics: the key to “Healthcare for All”
    Hasamnis AA, Patil SS, Shaik Imam, Narendiran K
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): s40-s42
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1s.21

  • Deuterium Depleted Water as an Adjuvant in Treatment of Cancer
    Anton Syroeshkin, Olga Levitskaya, Elena Uspenskaya, Tatiana Pleteneva, Daria Romaykina, Daria Ermakova
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 112-117
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.19

  • Most Downloaded
  • Dental Development between Assisted Reproductive Therapy (Art) and Natural Conceived Children: A Comparative Pilot Study
    Norzaiti Mohd Kenali, Naimah Hasanah Mohd Fathil, Norbasyirah Bohari, Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Roszaman Ramli
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 01-06
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.01

  • Manilkara zapota (L.) Royen Fruit Peel: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review
    Karle Pravin P, Dhawale Shashikant C
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 11-14
    » Abstract » doi: 0.5530/srp.2019.1.2

  • Pharmacognostic and Phytopharmacological Overview on Bombax ceiba
    Pankaj Haribhau Chaudhary, Mukund Ganeshrao Tawar
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 20-25
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.4

  • A Review of Pharmacoeconomics: the key to “Healthcare for All”
    Hasamnis AA, Patil SS, Shaik Imam, Narendiran K
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): s40-s42
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1s.21

  • A Prospective Review on Phyto-Pharmacological Aspects of Andrographis paniculata
    Govindraj Akilandeswari, Arumugam Vijaya Anand, Palanisamy Sampathkumar, Puthamohan Vinayaga Moorthi, Basavaraju Preethi
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 15-19
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.3

  • Most Cited Articles