E-ISSN 0976-2779 | ISSN 0975-8453
 

Review Article 


Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab.

Abstract
Apixaban (APX) is a potent oral anticoagulant drug that directly inhibit coagulation factor Xa for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total hip or knee replacement surgery. Orally APX has poor water solubility (0.028 mg/mL) and relative low bioavailability (50%). Transdermal APX delivery was utilized as a convenient alternative route to control oral limitations. This study designed to formulate ultrafine APX o/w nanoemulsion with self-permeation enhancing properties through skin barrier utilizing the ultrafine (> 50 nm) nanosized droplets as well as nanoemulsion components themselves to act as a permeation enhancer. Solubility study result in selecting triacetin oil, triton-x-100 and carbitol as oil phase, surfactant and cosurfactant respectively, while pseudoternary phase diagram construct nanoemulsion area for choosing formulations. Twenty-one o/w nanoemulsions prepared and characterized for droplet size, pH values, percent transmittance, electroconductivity, APX content, in vitro APX release, and ex vivo permeation through Albino Wistar rat abdominal skin to simulate human skin. Among formulations, ten preparations demonstrate ultrafine APX o/w nanoemulsions with high percent transmittance and electroconductivity, pH values appropriate for skin application, ultrafine droplet sizes (> 50 nm) and accepted APX content. In vitro release studies reveal significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in APX dispersibility and diffusion through dialysis membrane. Ex vivo APX permeation through rat abdominal skin was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased in comparison with pure drug as assured by significant (p ≤ 0.05) enhancement in permeation parameters Jss, KP and ER with shorter Tlag, which could be attributed to permeation enhancing properties of nanoemulsion formulation itself.

Key words: Apixaban (APX); Ultrafine o/w nanoemulsion; transdermal drug delivery


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi
Articles by N A Rajab
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 217
Downloaded: 3


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . SRP. 2020; 11(2): 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14


Web Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . http://www.sysrevpharm.org//?mno=86888 [Access: March 28, 2020]. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . SRP. 2020; 11(2): 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . SRP. (2020), [cited March 28, 2020]; 11(2): 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



Harvard Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab (2020) Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . SRP, 11 (2), 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



Turabian Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. 2020. Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11 (2), 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



Chicago Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. "Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization ." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 11 (2020), 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab. "Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization ." Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 11.2 (2020), 82-94. Print. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mustafa R. Abdulbaqi, N A Rajab (2020) Apixaban Ultrafine O/W Nano Emulsion Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization . Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11 (2), 82-94. doi:10.5530/srp.2020.2.14





Most Viewed Articles
  • Dental Development between Assisted Reproductive Therapy (Art) and Natural Conceived Children: A Comparative Pilot Study
    Norzaiti Mohd Kenali, Naimah Hasanah Mohd Fathil, Norbasyirah Bohari, Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Roszaman Ramli
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 01-06
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.01

  • Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of life instrument, short form: Validity in the Vietnamese healthcare context
    Trung Quang Vo*, Bao Tran Thuy Tran, Ngan Thuy Nguyen, Tram ThiHuyen Nguyen, Thuy Phan Chung Tran
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 14-22
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.03

  • A Review of Pharmacoeconomics: the key to Healthcare for All
    Hasamnis AA, Patil SS, Shaik Imam, Narendiran K
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): s40-s42
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1s.21

  • A Prospective Review on Phyto-Pharmacological Aspects of Andrographis paniculata
    Govindraj Akilandeswari, Arumugam Vijaya Anand, Palanisamy Sampathkumar, Puthamohan Vinayaga Moorthi, Basavaraju Preethi
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 15-19
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.3

  • Deuterium Depleted Water as an Adjuvant in Treatment of Cancer
    Anton Syroeshkin, Olga Levitskaya, Elena Uspenskaya, Tatiana Pleteneva, Daria Romaykina, Daria Ermakova
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 112-117
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.19

  • Most Downloaded
  • Dental Development between Assisted Reproductive Therapy (Art) and Natural Conceived Children: A Comparative Pilot Study
    Norzaiti Mohd Kenali, Naimah Hasanah Mohd Fathil, Norbasyirah Bohari, Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Roszaman Ramli
    SRP. 2020; 11(1): 01-06
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.1.01

  • Pharmacognostic and Phytopharmacological Overview on Bombax ceiba
    Pankaj Haribhau Chaudhary, Mukund Ganeshrao Tawar
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 20-25
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.4

  • Manilkara zapota (L.) Royen Fruit Peel: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review
    Karle Pravin P, Dhawale Shashikant C
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 11-14
    » Abstract » doi: 0.5530/srp.2019.1.2

  • A Review of Pharmacoeconomics: the key to Healthcare for All
    Hasamnis AA, Patil SS, Shaik Imam, Narendiran K
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): s40-s42
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1s.21

  • A Prospective Review on Phyto-Pharmacological Aspects of Andrographis paniculata
    Govindraj Akilandeswari, Arumugam Vijaya Anand, Palanisamy Sampathkumar, Puthamohan Vinayaga Moorthi, Basavaraju Preethi
    SRP. 2019; 10(1): 15-19
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5530/srp.2019.1.3

  • Most Cited Articles