Botany, Uses, Chemistry and Pharmacology of Ficus microcarpa: A Short Review
In this short review on Ficus microcarpa L. f., the first for the species, current information of the botany, uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology is presented and discussed. A common tree in coastal areas of the West Pacific region, F. microcarpa is characterised by its curtain of dangling aerial roots and small pink fruits. Considered sacred with spiritual significance, the species is an important food sources for birds and mammals, and a popular shade and ornamental plant. Used as traditional folk medicine to treat various diseases and disorders, F. microcarpa is rich in triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The aerial roots are most studied, and yielded the highest number of compounds (86), notably, triterpenoids (56), phenylpropanoids (13) and phenolic acids (12). Pharmacological properties of F. microcarpa include antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities.