Occurrence, Complications, and Interventions of Diabetes: A New Understanding of an Old Problem

Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy,2011,2,1,8-18.
Published:Jan, 2011
Type:Review Article

Occurrence, Complications, and Interventions of Diabetes: A New Understanding of an Old Problem

Rambhade SK, Singh S1, Goswami RB1, Rambhade A1

Department of Pharmacology, Peoples Institute of Pharmacy and Research Center, Peoples Hospital, Ayodhya By-Pass Road, Bhopal, MP, 1Department of Pharmacology, Sagar Institute of Research Technology and Science Pharmacy, near ISRO, Ayodhya Nagar, Bhopal, MP-462 041, India

Abstract:

This review aims to summarize the major advances of the preceding year and to put them into the context of current opinion on diabetes mellitus. Despite the advent of life-prolonging insulin for the treatment of diabetes, the appearance and progression of many of the disabling complications associated with this disease cannot be prevented through the administration of insulin. Clinically, the onset and rate of progression of diabetic complications, including cataract, corneal epitheliopathy, microangiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy, appear to be dependent upon both the duration and the severity of the diabetes. This review summarizes the specific pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular complications for which clinical therapies have been developed, including the polyol pathway, advanced glycation end products, protein kinase C, vascular epithelium growth factor, and the superoxide pathway. The review further focuses on therapies for these targets that are currently available or are undergoing late-stage clinical trials.